A short course about Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American journalist, novelist, short-story writer, and sportsman.
His economical and understated style—which he termed the iceberg theory—had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his adventurous lifestyle and his public image brought him admiration from later generations.
Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, and he won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954.
He published seven novels, six short-story collections, and two nonfiction works. Three of his novels, four short-story collections, and three nonfiction works were published posthumously. Many of his works are considered classics of American literature.
Ernest Hemingway > Iceberg theory6/32
The iceberg theory or theory of omission is a writing technique coined by American writer Ernest Hemingway.
Ernest Hemingway > Iceberg theory7/32
As a young journalist, Hemingway had to focus his newspaper reports on immediate events, with very little context or interpretation.
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When he became a writer of short stories, he retained this minimalistic style, focusing on surface elements without explicitly discussing underlying themes.
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Hemingway believed the deeper meaning of a story should not be evident on the surface, but should shine through implicitly.
Hemingway was raised in Oak Park, Illinois. After high school, he was a reporter for a few months for The Kansas City Star before leaving for the Italian Front to enlist as an ambulance driver in World War I. In 1918, he was seriously wounded and returned home. His wartime experiences formed the basis for his novel A Farewell to Arms (1929).
Ernest Hemingway > A Farewell to Arms11/32
A Farewell to Arms is a novel by Ernest Hemingway set during the Italian campaign of World War I. First published in 1929, it is a first-person account of an American, Frederic Henry, serving as a lieutenant ("tenente") in the ambulance corps of the Italian Army. The title is taken from a poem by the 16th-century English dramatist George Peele.
In 1921, Hemingway married Hadley Richardson, the first of four wives. They moved to Paris where he worked as a foreign correspondent and fell under the influence of the modernist writers and artists of the 1920s' "Lost Generation" expatriate community.
His debut novel The Sun Also Rises was published in 1926. He divorced Richardson in 1927 and married Pauline Pfeiffer; they divorced after he returned from the Spanish Civil War, where he had been a journalist.
He based For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940) on his experience there. Martha Gellhorn became his third wife in 1940; they separated after he met Mary Welsh in London during World War II. He was present with the troops as a journalist at the Normandy landings and the liberation of Paris.
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Elizabeth Hadley Richardson (November 9, 1891 – January 22, 1979) was the first wife of American author Ernest Hemingway.
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The two married in 1921 after a courtship of less than a year, and moved to Paris within months of being married.
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In Paris, Hemingway pursued a writing career, and through him Hadley met other expatriate British and American writers.
was an American journalist, novelist, short-story writer, and sportsman
Ernest Hemingway > Lost Generation19/32
The Lost Generation was the social generational cohort that came of age during World War I. "Lost" in this context refers to the "disoriented, wandering, directionless" spirit of many of the war's survivors in the early postwar period.
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The term is also particularly used to refer to a group of American expatriate writers living in Paris during the 1920s.
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Gertrude Stein is credited with coining the term, and it was subsequently popularized by Ernest Hemingway who used it in the epigraph for his 1926 novel The Sun Also Rises: "You are all a lost generation".
is a writing technique coined by American writer Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Hemingway > Pauline Pfeiffer23/32
Pauline Marie Pfeiffer (July 22, 1895 – October 1, 1951) was an American journalist, and the second wife of writer Ernest Hemingway.
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The Sun Also Rises is a 1926 novel by American writer Ernest Hemingway that portrays American and British expatriates who travel from Paris to the Festival of San Fermín in Pamplona to watch the running of the bulls and the bullfights.
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An early and enduring modernist novel, it received mixed reviews upon publication. However, Hemingway biographer Jeffrey Meyers writes that it is now "recognized as Hemingway's greatest work", and Hemingway scholar Linda Wagner-Martin calls it his most important novel.
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The novel was published in the United States in October 1926 by Scribner's. A year later, Jonathan Cape published the novel in London under the title Fiesta. It remains in print.
Ernest Hemingway > Martha Gellhorn27/32
Martha Ellis Gellhorn (November 8, 1908 – February 15, 1998) was an American novelist, travel writer, and journalist who is considered one of the great war correspondents of the 20th century.
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She reported on virtually every major world conflict that took place during her 60-year career. Gellhorn was also the third wife of American novelist Ernest Hemingway, from 1940 to 1945.
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She died in 1998 in an apparent suicide at the age of 89, ill and almost completely blind. The Martha Gellhorn Prize for Journalism is named after her.
Ernest Hemingway > Mary Welsh Hemingway30/32
Mary Welsh Hemingway (April 5, 1908 – November 26, 1986) was an American journalist and author, who was the fourth wife and widow of Ernest Hemingway.
Hemingway maintained permanent residences in Key West, Florida (in the 1930s), and Cuba (in the 1940s and 1950s).
He almost died in 1954 after plane crashes on successive days; injuries left him in pain and ill health for much of the rest of his life. In 1959, he bought a house in Ketchum, Idaho, where, in mid-1961, he ended his own life.
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